Production technologyTriticale

Soil: triticale can be produced on a variety of soils, from a good state sandy soil to chernozem soils with a thick layer of humus. Generally, triticale is cultivated in areas which are acceptable or less appropriate for wheat. In such areas, its grain yield and economic gain is compatible with wheat.

Rotation: The best previous crops are those which can be harvested early summer so there is sufficient time for good quality seedbed preparation. Good previous crops are early harvest legumes (sweet clover, crimson clover), pulses (peas, beans and soybean), rapeseed, poppy, sweet corn. Acceptable previous crops are early maize, silage maize, sunflower. Self-cultivation can be sustained for two years.

Soil and rotation

Triticale does not require rotational tillage. The aim of tillage is to retain soil moisture while maintaining good agricultural conditions and to control weeds.

Seedbed preparation:t is important to prepare a good quality seedbed. Germination will be less effective in loose, gappy and hollow seedbeds. Properly compact, fine textured and deposited seedbed is required.

Soil Preparation

Sowing date: triticale should be sown earlier than wheat. The optimum sowing date is between 20 September and 10 October. In cases of late sowing the plant population will be less closed and sparse, so overwintering will be weaker.

Seeding rates: the proposed germ counts are 3.8 - 4.5 million germ/ha. In cases of late sowing increased seed dosage is recommended.

Sowing

To establish the nutrient supply of triticale the nutrient requirements of wheat and rye should be taken into consideration. In general, triticale has lower nutrient requirements than wheat. In less-favorable areas the recommended amount of fertilizer is of the rye, in average or higher quality soils the recommended amount is that applied to wheat. The specific nutrient demand of triticale per one ton of grain yield and associated stem and root mass: N: 20-25 kg; P2O5: 11-14 kg; K2O: 18-24 kg. It is important to determine the appropriate dosage of nitrogen, because the excessive nitrogen fertilization can cause lodging.

Plant nutrition

Weed control: triticale has better weed suppression abilities than wheat. Weed control is mostly important in thinned populations. The herbicides used for wheat can be used.

Control of pests and diseases:control of fungal diseases and animal pest are rarely necessary. The most important diseases are powdery mildew and fusarium. During spiking and flowering, a fungicide control should be included in agro technology if necessary, and during this period defense against cereal leaf beetle and aphids is also relevant.

Plant Protection

Triticale ripens later, than wheat and rye. Harvest should be started at the start of full ripening at around 14-15% kernel moisture content. Threshing is more difficult than in the cases of wheat. Over-ripe should be prevented because the over-ripened plants will break more easily during threshing.

Harvest