Production technologyŐszi árpa

Soil: Those soils are appropriate, which have low nitrogen supply capacities and good water management. Avoid soils over 2.5% of humus content, as in a rainy year the protein content of the kernels can be higher than the maximum 11.5% required by the maltsters, without any nitrogen fertilization.

Rotation:Legumes and leguminous plants are not good as previous crops, because of due to their N-gathering ability, as resulting from the excessive N-supply the protein content of barley kernels will be higher than desirable and also increase the lodging risk. Good previous crops are rape, poppy, potato and corn silage, sunflower.

Soil and rotation

Winter malting barley is usually sown after early harvested previous crops. Its soil cultivation starts immediately after the previous crop is removed. Basic aspect is the soil moisture retention, considering that winter barley does not require deep tillage. In a droughty season summer plowing must be avoided, instead soil preparation methods with minimum tillage should be used. Soil must be sealed after each operation.

Soil Preparation

Sowing date: : It is important to determine the optimum sowing date, which is 1 to 20 October. Earlier sowing is not recommended, especially in hot, dry weather, due to the increased hazard of aphid and viruses contamination. In case of early sowing pesticide seed treatment is recommended.

Seeding rates: optimum rates are 3.5 to 4 million germs per hectare (200 to 220 kg seeds / ha). These rates may be, or should be increased by 15 to 30% in cases of unfavorable conditions, such as inadequate soil preparation, heterogeneous and dry seedbed or late sowing. It is not advisable to apply normal seed rates higher than 4.0 million germs / ha, in order to avoid the lodging of the future plant population. The sowing depth is 3-5 cm depending on the soil moisture and plasticity.

Sowing

The nutritional system of malting barley production system differs from the technology of common barley production. The applied N-amount in active substance must be reduced, as the protein content of malting barley kernels cannot exceed 11.5%. To achieve the ‘malting barley quality’ 70 to 100 kg / ha of N-application in active substance is sufficient. All nitrogen should be applied in spring, as early as possible. Do not add nitrogen after the appearance of the first node

Recommendations for malting barley fertilization:

First proposal:

  • Before sowing: approx. 70 kg P and K. Nitrogen application at sowing time is not advisable at all, or just very little.
  • In March: in the first spikelet 1 cm, or a little earlier application of 80 kg / ha N in active-substance is recommended.

Second proposal:

At sowing: we do not apply fertilizers

  • Top dressing in spring: 50 kg / ha N in active substance
  • Top dressing in spring: 30 to 50 kg / ha N in active substance
  • The amount of nitrogen should be reduced if the soil is rich in humus or nutrients
Plant nutrition

Weed control: In the fall, mono- and and dicotyledonous T1 weeds (Stellaria sp. Veronica sp.), in the spring preferably the T2 and T3 weeds (Galium sp., Raphanus raphanistrum, Sinapis sp.) cause problems. For dormant, monocotyledonous weed control, isoproturon and chlorotoluron, as well as triasulfuron (urea herbicides) are effective, which can be released either in the fall or spring. For the selective clearing of wild oat species difenzoquat and flamprop-isopropyl (herbicides containing heterocyclic active substances) can be used. Resistant weed control - eg. camomille species – treatments are necessary with the combinations of dicamba and flurenol (herbicides containing halogenic acid derivatives, acidic amide and anilide active substances).

Regulators: Winter malting barley may be susceptible to lodging, especially in wet periods. In case of winter malting barley Moddus (trinexapac-ethyl) is the suggested treatment, while Cycocel (Chlormequat) is ineffective. Application should be carried out when the first node is detectable. When determining the dispensable amount, the maturity of the plant, temperature conditions and nutrient supplies should be taken into consideration. During periods of night frosts and drought conditions do not apply regulators.

Fungicide use

Main diseases: Helminthosporium and Rhynchospsorium, as well as cereal powdery mildew

Guiding principles:

  • Before the flag leaf is just visible regular field control is required.
  • At least one fungicide treatment is recommended as a minimum requirement for flag leaf protection before ear emergence (around mid-to late May)
  • In cases of a high risk of infection spreading (weather, previous crop) 2 treatments are strongly recommended. The first is at the one-to-two nodes phenological phase; the second at appearance of the flag leaf.

Recommended fungicides:

  • Triazoles: adequate (active substances: epoxyconazol, cyprodinil, flusilazole, tebuconazole, fenpropimorph). Epoxyconazole and cyprodinil-active fungicides display good effects in the cases of winter malting barley.
  • Strobilurins: also recommended. Pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin are the most effective in winter malting barley stock, azoxystrobin can also be used with the reduction of the dosage depending on the intensity of the disease, but it is more expensive. Prothioconazole (Prosaro) demonstrates good results in barley.

1. First treatment proposal - safe, but more expensive: two fungicide treatments.

  • First spray: at the stage of first node detectable, usually in mid-April
  • Second spray: at the growth stages of the flag leaf just visible, about 5 weeks later

2. Second treatment proposal - cheaper but riskier

Under constant control - if there is no infection - defense is concentrated just to the flag leaf.

Pest control

In spring during the tillering phase protection against leaf beetles may be necessary, which can be released by a simple insecticide treatment. After the ear emergence and flowering phases pest control against leaf beetles, aphid species and scarab beetles may be necessary.

Plant Protection

Harvest should begin at full ripeness, at around 14% grain moisture content. It is important to start the harvest at the optimum time, because in cases of late harvest, there is increased risk of lodging and ear fracture, moreover, consequent increased grain loss and deteriorating nutrition indicators may occur.

Harvesting