Termesztési technológiaŐszi búza
Sowing date: Optimum sowing date is between 1 - 20 October. We can utilize the inherent advantages of tillering if such types of wheat will be seeded for the first time. In the course of work planning we should try for early sowing. The early development of wheat seeded with in optimal date with low germ number per hectare is faster, and so can reach a more uniform germination of the plant population. In cases of late sowing tillering will be less intensive that can lead to yield loss.
Normal seed rate: guideline germ numbers are between 4 and 4,2 million germs per hectare (that mean seed rates of 200 to 220 kg /ha). As these varieties have intensive tillering capacity, inherent advantage of tillering ability can be realized this way. In cases of late sowing increase of the normal seed rates is recommended by 10-15%.
During the tillering phase preventive treatment against powdery mildew required in combination with weed control, and also application of regulators is appropriate at this period. After the stem extension appearance of several foliar diseases can be expected (powdery mildew, septoria and brown patch), against them systemic fungicide treatment could be necessary. The critical period of wheat in regard of crop protection is the beginning of flowering after completion of the tillering phase. At this stage it is important to protect ears, especially for fusarium control. Leaf protection is also important, as different rust species can be expected to appear besides the foliar diseases listed previously. Therefore the stock of plants should be sprayed via systemic fungicides. During these treatments it is also expedient to apply insecticides for aphids and bugs control, together with fungicide treatment.
The specific nutrient demands of winter wheat equivalent to one ton of grain yield and stem and root mass belonging to: N: 27 kg, P2O5: 11 kg, K2O 18 kg CaO: 6 kg, MgO: 2 kg, S: 6 kg per hectare. The satisfaction of the specific nutrient demands is usually performed by fertilizers. For appropriate amounts and quality of yield, good soil nutrient supply and harmonized N: P: K ratios are essential. Phosphorus - mainly on medium or weaker supplied soils – besides its direct increasing effect on the yield, it also has a positive effect on the seed filling and on the quality of the crop. Potassium has a positive effect on crop quality. The total amount of phosphorus and potassium is applied as basic fertilizers in the fall. With the climate of Hungary nitrogen has a key role in maximizing yield and achieving good quality.
Regulators: In order to achieve high crop yields it is important to maintain crop safety. The wheat varieties of ISTERRA Hungary Ltd. are characterized with appropriate stability, though intensive cultivation technology can justify the use of growth regulators, especially with regard to the reduction stem strain for the expected high crop safety. The applied relatively high nitrogen fertilization together with adverse weather conditions increases the risk of lodging. The frequency of fungal diseases can be decreased; harvesting difficulties as well as quantitative and qualitative yield loss because of lodging can also be avoided.