Production technologyTvrdá pšenica
Soil: winter durum wheat needs similar soil to standard wheat. Durum wheat prefers deep humus soils with good water-holding and high adsorption capacities, which contain enough lime. Calcareous chernozem soils, alluvial and meadow soils are appropriate. Non suitable soils are loose, gritty, shallow, hard and acidic soils. The best areas are the medium-hard chernozem, and forest soils of the Great Plains and the southern part of South and Central Transdanubia.
Rotation: Good previous crops are plants which can be harvested early and which will not drain the soil too much, and those plants that enrich the soil with nitrogen. Good previous crops are legumes, and other such plants: rapeseed, flax, poppy, early potatoes and tobacco which can be harvested early. Average previous crops are sunflower and sugar beet. Seeding durum wheat after wheat, other cereals and maize should be avoided.
Soil preparation is similar to that of winter wheat. The method of soil preparation depends on the previous crop, its harvesting time and tillage depth; and on the soil and precipitation conditions at harvest. The recommended tillage systems are the same as those described for winter wheat.
the optimum sowing date is 5 to 20 October.
proposed germ counts are 3.5 - 4 million germs /ha. Under adverse conditions and late sowing it is recommended to increase to 4.5 million germs /ha the quantity of seed, as the tillering ability of durum varieties is not intensive. The recommended seeding depth is 4 cm.
The nutritional requirements of winter durum wheat are similar to the specific nutritional needs of winter wheat. For one ton of grain yield and associated stem and root mass: N: 27 kg; P2O5: 11 kg; K2O: 18 kg, CaO: 6 kg MgO: 2 kg, S: 6 kg / ha. The total amounts of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are delivered as basic fertilizers in autumn. Only a minimal amount of nitrogen is advised for application in autumn (it even may be omitted). In spring the required amount of nitrogen is applied in three split doses of top dressing. In early spring, the first top dressing is recommended to be done at the beginning of vegetation (approximately 60 kg/ha of active substance) the second at stem elongation (40 - 60 kg / ha), while the third one at the appearance of flag leaf (40 to 60 kg / ha).
At tillering it may be necessary to carry out weed control and powdery mildew prevention simultaneously, and this is the appropriate time to dispense regulators, too. Following this stem elongation leaf diseases are expected to appear (powdery mildew, septoria and brown patch), and it may be necessary to apply absorbing fungicide treatments against these. From the point of view of plant protection, an extremely important period is the start of flowering after tillering. The main focus is on ear protection, especially against fusarium during this time. Leaf protection is also important, in addition to the diseases listed above leaf rust species can be expected to appear. Spraying of absorbing fungicides should be used against these. At the same time insecticide treatment against lice and aphids should be carried out together with the fungicide treatment in a single pass. It is extremely important to apply two rounds of protection; first against foliar diseases, and the second against spike fusarium infection.
The required quality parameters of the kernel appear by 17-18% moisture content. It is recommended to begin harvest at this point. As the kernel is hard, the proper adjustment of the harvester is important. Five - 10 mm of rain on the durum wheat at full maturation will significantly deteriorate the quality, especially if precipitation is followed by a few days of cool weather. The quality degradation is due to the starting up of germination and the reduction of falling numbers caused by the increased activity of alpha-amylase enzymes.