Production technologyJarný jačmeň

Soils: spring barley needs medium hard, deep soils with good water holding capacity; soils which are good for sugar beet are also good for spring barley. Traditionally, spring barley is the subsequent crop after sugar beet as their needs are similar from several points of view. The soils supplied well with lime are suitable for the cultivation of spring barley. Proper fertilization of poorer soils makes them suitable for spring barley production. The cold, acidic soils, loose sandy or heavy clay soil and fen soils are inappropriate for the cultivation of spring malting barley.

Rotation: spring barley is highly sensitive to previous crops. Due to the short vegetative period, spring barley is less tolerant to the inappropriate previous crops. The best previous crop is sugar beet, which leaves the soil in a good culture state, with relatively low N-levels, and usually free of weeds. Good previous crops are silage maize and potato, after which good soil can be prepared, moreover, sunflower and early maize are also good previous crops.

Legumes are not good previous crops due to their N-binding capacity, because the excessive N-supply will result in a higher than desirable protein content of spring barley which increases the risk of lodging.

Soil and rotation

The most important goal during soil preparation is to preserve the winter precipitation in the soil and to prepare the seed bed in the best possible quality. Autumn plowing is a prerequisite for early sowing. The spring barley does not require too deep autumn plowing. Deep plowing and loosening is rather done for the previous crop. The plowed layer should always be harrowed appropriately. In spring, seedbed preparation and seeding should be done as early as possible. Soil cultivation with disks should be avoided due to the strong drying effect.

Soil Preparation

Sowing time: it is crucial to adhere to the optimal, early sowing time (only the sowing of poppy seed and pea precede it). Sowing should be done in late February, early March. Spring barley germinates safely at 2-4°C. April is unsuitable for sowing spring barley.

Seed quantity: the optimal amount is 3.5 to 4.0 million germ per hectare (200 to 220 kg/ha). This quantity may be, or should be increased by 15 to 30% under unfavorable conditions, such as inadequate soil preparation, heterogeneous and dry seedbed or late sowing. The sowing depth is 3-5 cm depending on the plasticity and moisture content of the soil.

Sowing

A key component of spring malting barley cultivation is the nutrient supply; N fertilization especially has a very important role in the development of appropriate quality. As the protein content of spring barley may not exceed 11.5%, the dose of N fertilizer should be limited. Accordingly, the average fertilizer requirements of spring barley are the following:

  • N: 50-80 kg/ha
  • P: 46 kg/ha
  • K: 140 kg/ha

When calculating the applicable amount of N fertilizer, the following factors should be taken into consideration:

  • Previous crop: the amount of N left by the previous crop (legumes and pulses)
  • Humus content of the soil: the applicable N concentration is inversely proportional to the soil humus content
  • Precipitation: in drier years and drier habitats protein content is generally higher.

Soil testing helps nutrient determination (P, K)

  • Sowing time: 40-70 kg/ha of P and K + 30-50 kg/ha N
  • After sowing: 15-21 days after sowing 20-40 kg/ha N,

Important: After tilling nitrogen has an adverse effect on protein content!

Nitrogen Experiments:

Experiment 1, heavy clay soil, unirrigated area:

N dosis

(kg/ha)

Total N.

(kg/ha)

Yield

(t/ha)

Protein content

(%)

50+10

60

5,4

10,0

50+40

90

5,5

11,1

50+70

120

5,7

12,4

50+100

150

5,7

13,9

The increased N dose had little effect on yield but increased the amount of protein.

Experiment 2: Deep sedimentary soil, 11 years (1991 -2002), 8 parcels

N dosis

(kg/ha)

Yield
(t/ha)

Difference

(t/ha)

Protein content
(%)

60

5,0

9,7

90

5,6

+0,67

10,2

120

6,1

+1,1

10,8

150

6,3

+1,3

11,4

Experiment 3: 11 years (1991 -2002), 9 parcels, clay loam soil

N dosis

(kg/ha)

Yield
(t/ha)

Difference

(t/ha)

Protein content
(%)

90

5,7

9,6

120

6,1

0,4

10,5

150

6,3

0,6

11,1

The increase of nitrogen dose had no economic benefits.

Applying N fertilizer above the N-dose corresponding to the planned yield impairs the physical and inner content parameters of spring malting barley (reduced thousand kernel weight and specific weight, reduced yield, failed malting, and increased crude protein content).

The phosphorus and potassium fertilization of spring barley is similar to other cereals. It is important to apply the nutrients at the proper rate.

Plant nutrition

Weed Control: in spring barley T2 and T3 weeds can cause problems (Galium sp., Raphanus raphanistrum, Sinapis sp.) which germinate together with spring barley. T1 weeds may be problematic during after-emergence. Herbicides which can be dispensed either in the autumn or spring, like isoproturon and chlortoluron, triasulfuron (urea type herbicides) are effective. Flamprop-isopropyl and difenzoquat (herbicides with heterocyclic active substances) selectively destroy wild oat species. Against resistant weeds - like chamomile species - dicamba and flurenol (halo acid derivative herbicides, and herbicides with acidic amide and anilide active substance) combinations are needed.

Regulators: spring barley may be susceptible to lodging, especially in wet periods. For spring barley Moddus (trinexapac-ethyl) is the suggested treatment, while Cycocel (Chlormequat) is ineffective in barley. Application should be carried out when the first node is detectable. When determining the dispensable amount, the maturity of the plant, temperature conditions and nutrient supply should be taken into consideration. During night frosts and dry conditions, do not apply regulators.

Fungicide use

Main diseases: leaf mottling (Helminthosporium, Rynchospsorium), cereal powdery mildew and rust diseases

The main defense policy:

  • The regular checking of the area is needed before the appearance of flag leafs.
  • At least one fungicide treatment is recommended as a minimum requirement for flag leaf protection before ear emergence (around mid-to late May)
  • In cases of a high risk of infection spreading (weather, previous crop) 2 treatments are recommended. The first is at the one-to-two nodes phenological phase; the second at the appearance of the flag leaf.

Recommended fungicides:

  • triazoles: acceptable (active substance: epoxyconazol, cyprodinil, flusilazole, tebuconazole, fenpropimorph). Epoxyconazole and cyprodinil-active fungicides show a good effect in the case of spring barley.
  • strobilurins: also recommended. Pyraclostrobin and picoxystrobin are the most effective, azoxystrobin can also be used with the reduction of the dosage depending on the intensity of the disease, but it is more expensive. Prothioconazole (Prosaro) shows good results in barley.

Pest control

In spring during the tillering phase the protection against leaf beetles may be necessary, which can be done with a simple insecticide treatment. After the ear emergence and flowering phases pest control against leaf beetles, aphid species and scarab beetles may be necessary.

Plant Protection

The harvest should be started at full ripeness, at around 14% grain moisture content. It is important to start the harvest at the optimal time, because in case of late harvest, the risk of lodging and ear fracture will increase, consequently increasing grain loss and deteriorating nutrition indicators.

Harvest